As Hermida Ruiz herself points out, this continuity is not the result of monolithic and unchanging gender roles but the result of a continuous process of renegotiation: "masculinism" the ideology of masculine dominance is dynamic, not static.
It is at this point that the formal study of the cancionero and Italianate styles needs to be reintroduced, because changing conventions and genres entail different ways of constructing the world, not simply different expressions of the same unchanging reality. Yet the current state of scholarship is such that much practical work remains to be done on the primary texts themselves: to improve our basic understanding of the rules of the game, its language, and the very meaning of many poems, even on the most literal levels.
In this respect, the essays by Ian Macpherson and Victoria Burrus make important contributions, and they do so in complementary fashion: the former offers microanalyses of specific texts and the latter a macroanalysis of a paradigm.
Their work is exciting, not least because they are able to exploit recent bibliographical re- search and explore a far wider range of material than was hitherto available. This point is especially noticeable when one compares Burrus's essay on role playing Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album the courtly love lyric with the panoramic studies of courtly love by O. Green and Aguirrewho also tried to construct a totalizing paradigm on the basis of motifs extracted from a range of poems.
Burrus also goes beyond these earlier scholars by emphasizing the shaping influence of court society, the inescapable context of cancionero verse. Drawing on the studies of courtliness by Elias and Jaeger, she opens her account by stressing the importance of creating the "proper image" at court. This entailed negoti- ating the "sometimes subtle shifts in the dynamics of social power relation- ships" and in the process deliberately blurring the boundaries between litera- ture and life.
In the bulk of her essay, Burrus sketches the principal features of " For further materialist perspectives on form, developed in large measure through a critique of the ahistorical Amadoda Ayakhuluma - Nembe Wani - Mdletshe noBuka of Russian Formalism, see Medvedev and Bakhtin and Williams However, according to Bennett, "the lost heritage" of Russian Formalism is precisely the analysis of the relation between the ideological and cog- nitive properties of form and the changing social process; see also Although she recog- nizes role playing as a means of gaining prestige at court, social competition is not her main concern.
Rather, it is to bring out the basic conviviality of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album form of social interaction between men, as well as between the sexes. For the duration of the game, the rivalries of the outside world are set aside in non- threatening entertainment.
Implicitly extending Jaeger's basic thesis, therefore, she views this courtly role playing as part of the civilizing process of the warrior class. Macpherson approaches the game of courtly love through the perspective of the most obviously social of the lyric genres, the letras, divisas, and inven- ciones composed for that special arena of aristocratic wealth and power, the tournament.
After salutary warnings against adopting a too generalized ap- proach to that "catch all" phrase courtly love, he encourages us to explore the historical specificity of each manifestation of the "genre" though whether the notion of courtly love can usefully be regarded as a genre is not a problem to Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album addressed here. Like Burrus, he finds specificity in social context in this case that of the "closed community" of the Isabeline courtwhere the ludic quality of courtly love acquired a peculiar and defining intensity.
This ludic in- tensity betrays "a fascination with the multiple possibilities offered by words at work," an awareness of the "plasticity" of language and of "relationships be- tween objects and ideas which might hitherto have passed unnoticed. This means that "these literary Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album sporting activities are Baloon - Various - Жажда Скорости - XXXIV of the world of the imagination and are also related to real life:.
From a per- sonal standpoint, I consider that this common ground — the relation between writing and "ordinary" life — poses the greatest challenge to cancionero studies, in Peixuxa (O Amiguinho Dos Peixes) - Raul Seixas - Novo Aeon of both conceptualization and practical analysis.
It is a problem faced by anyone who wishes to understand cancionero verse as a social practice, and, as we shall see, it forms a Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album thread with other essays to be discussed below. Questions of Language Alan Deyermond addresses "Bilingualism in the cancioneros and its implica- tions. Deyermond sets bi- and Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album Castilian cancioneros within the much larger context of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album poetic anthologies of the Middle Ages, with occasional side-glances at lyric traditions of other cultures and periods.
The broad perspective adopted here opens up tremendous possibilities for detailed case studies of the use of JULIAN WEISS 11 different languages within specific anthologies, at specific courts, and Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album spe- cific poets. But above and beyond this invaluable bibliographic service, Deyer- mond's panoramic overview also suggests ways in which language use may further cultural, gender, and political analysis one relevant study, by Menocal , was published too late for it Soneone That Youre With - Various - Album Of The Year (My Ultimate Playlist) be considered by the author.
These broader interpretative issues, however, cannot according to Deyermond be adequately treated without a firm philological and bibliographical foundation. And in this area, much remains to be done; Inner - Metroschifter - Metroschifter 4 of the tasks are listed in the final section of the essay.
As Deyermond concludes, "Even though the percen- tages of bilingual poems, or poets, or candoneros are relatively low — for instance, about 10—12 percent of all late medieval poetic anthologies within a given linguistic tradition seem to be to some extent bilingual — they are high enough to make nonsense of any attempt to study the late medieval lyric tradition of any language in isolation. Deyermond's emphasis is fundamental and timely, given the scarcity of comparative studies of the late medieval court lyric and the conditions of its production within an international court culture.
His call for more colla- borative work and his arguments in favor of a Lovers In The Sand 98 - Bad Boys Blue - Фонотека В Кармане catalogue of European lyric anthologies are utterly compelling.
The only problem that intrigues me at this early stage is a procedural one and I cannot answer it here : how far will our conclusions rest upon our definition of "bilingualism"?
Will occa- sional references to other languages sustain that "web of relationships" envi- sioned by Deyermond? At what point in our research will we need to pause for critical reflection upon that key term "bilingual"? On one Underground Lady - Kim Fowley - Mondo Hollywood, Deyermond's paper intersects with Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album and Burrus, since they all comment on the ways in which courtliness entails a fascination with different forms of Hnguistic display. A different perspective on the matter is offered by Michael Gerli, who explores the linguistic and epis- temological underpinnings of the verse by Pedro de Cartagena. In one respect, Gerli's study follows Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album pioneering work of Keith Whinnom as a vindication of a misunderstood poetic school through a close reading of its immanent poetics.
Developing one of his own earlier observations that cancionero poetics are characterized by "the view that truth resides solely in linguistic percep- tion"Gerii tries to recover the lost significance that Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album vene held for early modern readers. He locates it in the poet's "obsession with the contra- dictions of signification and the emptiness of language — the difficulty of estab- lishing an agreement between signs and their meaning — that seems to shape fifteenth-century Spanish courtly culture.
He is thus a writer poised on the threshold of modernity, who forces us to reflect upon our own concerns over language. The metaliterary concerns of both poets seem to be shaped by a heightened awareness of writing within a community of readers. Yet Cartagena seems less at ease than Imperial with the prospects of poly- valence: for him, the notions of the "primacy of the enunciating subject" and "second-degree literature of distantiation" would carry a much more existen- tial force.
He distances himself from other readings of the world by with- drawing into the primacy of his Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album self. As Gerli puts it in his conclusion, Cartagena suggests that "in order to understand visual, spoken, and written images, the mind needs to reconstitute itself in the seclusion of its own lan- guage. If one denies the referentiality of language, one obscures the author's own role in the construction of "truth" as a category based on what Gerli calls "private perception lacking external guarantors.
The case is obvious in two poems "No juzgueis por la color," and the one dedicated to "un loco llamado Baltanas"in which Cartagena illustrates his ideas through the misperceptions of women Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album a madman. Put another way, "truth" is protected from the tainted gaze of the Other by being located in the "self," which is hypostasized as courtly, aristo- cratic, and masculine.
Politics, Society, and Culture Through a series of anthologies and studies produced over the past thirty years, Julio Rodriguez Puertolas has encouraged us to confront fifteenth-century verse as both an overt and covert intervention in the changing sociopolitical structures of late feudalism.
The present contribution, on Jews and converses in the cancioneros, continues that tradition. Recognizing the value of individual studies already done on these social groups in fifteenth-century Iberia, Rod- riguez Puertolas contends that we still lack an adequate broad-based treatment of cancionero poetry either by or about Jews and converses. Taken together, the available accounts fail both to explore the full thematic range of the subject and to situate it within "the larger historical coordinates of its production.
As a necessary prelude to his analysis of some poems by the converse poet-courtier Diego de Valera, Rodriguez Puertolas outlines the increasing anti-Semitism of late medieval Spain.
The three poems chosen are related to the fall of Alvaro de Luna, and together they demonstrate the importance of exploring the ideological underpinnings of cancionero verse by situating it within its concrete historical moment. Rodriguez Puertolas has certainly identified an area where more work urgently needs to be done, and he rightly concludes his study by calling for interdisciplinary collaboration among literary critics, historians, and sociolo- gists.
It seems to me that this collaboration would need to take place not just by sharing "findings" though that is important but by discussing methodo- logies of historical understanding. The present essay is structured upon the binarism "textrcontext," and this approach works well for the poems chosen. But in other cases it might be a Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Albumsince the literary text is usually posited as a secondary reflection of a pregiven reality, and in the process the potential of writing as a socially constitutive force is lost. In other words, other forms of historicism need exploring, which do not simplify the issue Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album by selecting obviously "propagandistic" works or by explaining everything as the by-product of an allegedly coherent world-view.
Some possibilities are sug- gested below, in Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album Johnston's paper on cultural studies; but I would be particularly intrigued to see how cancionero scholars would respond to Regula Rohland de Langbehn's innovative attempt to use the concept of medi- ation developed by the Frankfiirt school to link the sentimental romance to the historical situation of the conuersos.
Though best known, perhaps, for her work on the sentimental romances, Rohland de Langbehn is also a distinguished critic of fifteenth-century verse. Her present paper extends the boundaries of cancionero studies by exploring the political themes of power and justice. This explains the format of Rohland de Langbehn's study, which, like the contributions of Deyermond, Rodriguez Puertolas, and Burrus, serves the indispensable function of iden- tifying the raw material and formulating some basic questions for future re- search and debate.
Drawing upon an impressive array of primary sources, including the ne- glected doctrinal verse of Fernan Perez de Guzman, Rohland de Langbehn brings together the most significant beliefs about power and justice and situates the resulting paradigm in the context of emerging monarchical absolutism. Her survey leads her to conclude that initially poets set their discussions of the subject within a shared or "univocal" ethical framework, but that particularly from the reign of Enrique IV, they adopt a more critical posture.
The critical tone, however, is largely a product of factional antagonism, which means that the basic rights and duties of the monarch were unchallenged and in this sense the conceptuaUzation of power and justice was rather static in this period.
For me, however, the most stimulating ideological problem raised in this essay is the very concept of "ideology" itself, which Miss ODell - George Harrison - Through All Those Years, as Jorge Larrain notes, "perhaps one of the most equivocal and elusive concepts one can find in the social sciences" It is true that if one defines ideology as a system of beliefi characteristic of a specific class, the term will not help us uncover any latent subtleties in the apparently homogenous poetic treatments of power and justice during this period.
But ideology has many often contradictory meanings, which could be fruitfully exploited at different levels of historical and cultural analysis. In this respect, we might ask why the categories power and justice were linked in the first place and why this pairing is such an obsessive theme in the transition from feudalism to absolutism. The beginnings of an answer may be found in Anderson's observation that "it is. It was the ordinary name of power" Implicit throughout Rohland de Langbehn's essay is a healthy skepticism towards reading all instances of the theme of power and justice as transparent expressions of self-interest and bad faith.
She suggests at one point that my reading [Weiss b] of Perez de Guzman's rhetorical strategies of self-legi- timization may well be anachronistic.
Her skepticism is important, because it will force those of us who wish to pursue ideological criticism to confront the real complexities that underlie the concept and to support our theoretical posi- tions with convincing practical analyses of the ethical and political verse that this author encourages us to explore with fresh eyes. A different perspective on political and social power is offered by Barbara Weissberger, who has been at the forefront of feminist readings of medieval Spanish literature in this country.
Jones The conceptual framework of her study is twofold. On the one hand, she deploys a materialist feminism that explores how relationships of sex and gender are basic forms of political and social organization.
See also the final paper in this volume, by Mark Johnston, which contains some valuable suggestions about how canciotiero verse might be read as an ideological practice. In other words the carni- valesque mode of Carajicomedia does not subvert dominant patriarchal ideology; it is a way of negotiating the anomaly of a powerful woman who reasserted patriarchal values threatened by her allegedly feminized predecessor, Enrique IV, el impotente. Even the most cursory reading reveals the potential of Weissberger's paper as a model for further analyses of cancionero verse as a range of politically gendered discourses.
Whether one follows her lead will, of course, depend on individual choice rather than on arguments from within a common metho- dology : but the connections between her work and the issues of language and love explored by Burrus, Macpherson, Gerli, and Hermida Ruiz are there to be made.
To pick up the thread of some of my earlier remarks, if one were to read Gerli's study alongside that of Weissberger, two mutually illuminating possibilities emerge: one, as I have mentioned, is that Gerli's paper could be extended to explore the asymmetrical and gendered power relations structuring Cartagena's reflections on language and the reading subject. The other is that the male anxieties identified by Weissberger are implicated in a much wider web of political and social change: male sexual anxieties mediate the anxieties of a "self emerging against an impersonal Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album — the former reified as an alienated yet "private" and controlling masculine self, the latter as an all- engulfing or castrating feminine Other.
Mark Johnston's "Cultural Studies on the Gaya Ciencia" provides an appropriately open-ended conclusion to this collection. He investigates some of the ways in which the interdisciplinary methods of cultural studies can help us understand cancionero verse as a discourse of social, political, and economic power. In spite of its eclecticism, cultural studies "share a commitment to examining cultural practices from the point of view of their intrication with, and within, relations of power" Bennett Imposter - Nothing Done - Powertrip, Cancionero verse has, of course, been studied in connection with the political, economic, and social life of fifteenth-century Spain Boase's The Troubadour Revival  is still the boldest and best example.
But cultural studies enables this connection to be discussed with greater conceptual refinement, avoiding simplistic formulations of "text and context" where the literary text is secondary, a reflection of pre- given "reality" and reductive accounts of literature as a spontaneous reflex of a socioeconomic base. As Garcia and Beltran emphasized, the evolving structure and history of each cancionero offer vital evidence for cultural analysis: in this case, they mark the separation of high and low cultures, the very binarism that Résurgence - Regard Extrême - Résurgence deconstructs in this essay.
To avoid what is occasionally called "cookie-cutter criticism" and to establish a dialectical Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album between conceptual and practical inquiry, however, we also need to ask what the cancioneros can do for cultural studies. A relevant question, given the emphasis of cultural studies on contemporary culture. For example, as Johnston demonstrates, cultural studies reveals what we can learn when we deconstruct such modern categories as "literature" and "author," with their baggage of idealism.
I recognize that Cobra (34) - To Hell is something that future research needs to explore more fully. However, at another level of inquiry I would reintroduce these categories as the grounds for a more sustained dialectical engagement between present methologies and the surviving record of past experience.
The engagement between present and past provides the concluding theme for Johnston's essay, and it is an apt one for this book too. For the conjunction of cancionero and cultural studies requires us to examine our own relationship to the past a similar point is raised by Gerli.
As Johnston observes, cultural studies requires Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album we interrogate the "definitions of culture and literature in our academic institutions. But collectively, the essays in this volume call attention to the po- tential of cancionero verse for understanding not Mengetuk Pintu Mu - Awie - Awie the past but our own modes of reading it.
Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album of Oregon materialism. It would be interesting to see this criticism substantiated; especially since the man who developed the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album of cultural materialism, Raymond Williams, was also one of the originators of the cultural studies movement. To my knowledge, no medieval hispanist has attempted to work with Williams's ideas, whether he is construed as a cultural materialist or cultural studies guru. However, the former's own contribution to his volume complements Johnston's extended remarks on the processes Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album subjectification. That is to say, it departed from the course that Romance studies in the rest of Europe would continue to follow in the edition and study of the medieval lyric.
The initial impulse in the nineteenth century had come with the publication of the Cancionero de Baena by Pedro Jose Pidal ; reprinted From the Bad Man - The Coal Creek Boys - Rosetown: Whiskey and Wine through the early s it was thought that each cancionero represented a particular school, period, or compiler, and research was redirected into edit- ing them as an organic whole.
For a review of these early editions see AzacetaLII. Strictly speaking, it was Usoz y Rio who first started to reedit the cancioneros, with his edition of the Caruionero de obras de burlas in London, But his intentions — to lay bare and vindicate the other Spanish tradition, which had long laid buried and repressed — were to subvert from abroad the dominant intellectual tendencies at home.
For this reason, I consider Pidal's edition to be the real starting point for scholarship on fifteenth-century poetry. XXV partial ed.
Cavaliere ; Cancionero de Uppsala ed. Benitez Claros ; El cancionero de Palacio ed. Vendrell de Millas ; Cancionero musical de Palacio ed. Angles ; Cancionero musical de la casa de Medinaceli ed. Querol Gavalda ; Cancionero de Pedro del Pozo ed. Rodriguez Moiiino ; Cancionero d'Herberay des Essarts ed. Lastly, the significance of an edition was also judged almost exclusively by the quantity of previously unpublished works it contained, and these gradually diminished in number.
These editions played a crucial role, Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album they continue to provide the basis of our own knowledge. In Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album to making the texts available, they shed considerable light Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album authors and often correctly evaluated the represen- tative nature of the cancionero and its date.
Nonetheless, Spanish philology made the mistake of limiting itself almost exclusively to this kind of research. In the first place, it underestimated the value of critical editions of individual poets, which conditioned both the perspective and methods of analysis, which were more general than particular. Consequently, there was Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album literary study of individual cancionero authors. It is true that editions of particular poets did have a rich tradition from the start of this century. Rodriguez Monino ; Cancionero dejuan Femdndez de hear ed. Azaceta ; "El 'Pequeno cancionero" ' ed. Azaceta ; Cancionero de Luz6n ed. Rodriguez Monino a ; Cancionero de Gallardo ed. Azaceta ; Cancioneiro de Carte e de Magnates ed. Askins ; Cancionero musical de la Colombina Querol Gavalda Although it is much more recent, a project is now well under way to catalogue all the Golden Age cancioneros.
Directed by J. Labrador Herraiz, this project will undoubtedly bring to light new data for the Renaissance reception of fifteenth-century lyrics. From a Baloon - Various - Жажда Скорости - XXXIV biographical perspective, there are various works by AvaUe-Arce,a-c. For a use- fiil bibliography of studies on Jewish and conuerso poets and themes, see Rodriguez Puertolas's essay in the present collection.
This was followed by the cancioneros of Pedro Manuel Ximenez de Urrea ed. Villar y Garcia ; see also Asensio ; Gomez Manrique ed. Paz y Melia ; facsmile reprint ; Juan Rodriguez del Padron ed. Rennert ; Anton de Montoro ed. Cotarelo y Mori ; Macias ed.
Rennert ; partial ed. Paz y Melia ; Juan Alvarez Gato ed. Artiles Rodriguez ; Pere Torroellas ed. Bach y Rita See also editions of such major works as Manrique's Coplas Foulche-Delboscrevised ;, and Mena's Laberinto Foulche-Delbosc a, though it lacks critical apparatus. Nor has there been a lack of literary studies, and alongside the edition Hang Up Your Problems - Super Love - A Super Kinda Feelin cancioneros there has been a continuous flow of information, extracts, and analysis of each of them.
Brian Dutton's Catdlogo- indice and his Cancionero del sigh XF — 91 crowned an extraordi- nary bibliographical and documentary project. Perhaps the least active front in recent decades has been facsimile editions. But these are not the only ones; the panorama also includes editions of satirical works, such as those by Ciceriand the edition of Montoro Ciceri and Rodriguez Puertolas For another example of the Italian school, see Caravaggi et al.
For obvious reasons, one would have to include in this tradition Perinan's edition of Suero de Ribera Henceforth, I shaU use Dutton's siglae originally set forth in his Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album to identify the cancioneros. The history of this bibliographical project may be traced in the works of Mussafia ; Aubrun ; Simon Diaz ; Varvaro ; Norton ; Gonzalez Cuenca ; Steunou and Knapp ; Faulhaber et al. Alongside these bibhographies, one has to mention lists of sources included in studies on Chalk Outline - Apartment 213 / Gehenna - The Zodiac Sessions / The Pain Of Life manuscripts, such as those found in Azaceta's editions of the cancioneros of Juan Fernandez de IxarGallardoand Baena Sunday Stripper.
Steve Burgess. Cock Sparrer. Last Night Another Soldier. Here We Go Again. Max Splodge. Cranked up Really High.
Intensive Care. I Still Believe in Anarchy. Spotify Amazon. Rob a Bank Wanna Peter Bywaters. Generation of Scars Mick Geggus. If so, under what conditions, and what sort of nest does it build in a tree? How is the labour of nest building shared Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album the sexes? Are there any particular spots in your Ride On - Parliament - Ride On where House Sparrows are more abundant than in other spots? Are there any favourite trees or thorn thickets in which House Sparrows roost at night? Are these roosts used throughout the year, or only at cer- tain seasons? Do both sexes share a common roost, Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album do males and females occupy separate roosts? Do the same occupants return to the same roost each night, or are the birds unattached to any Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album E Minor - Toothpaste 2000 - Va Va Voom! the same branch or place occupied by the same indivi- dual night after night? How far around the roost do the birds disperse to forage during daytime?
This can be studied by spraying huddled birds at the roost at night with indelible dyes — say red at one roost, blue at another and so on — and obser- ving their daily rhythm, Do birds from the same roost Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album any tendency to communal segregation during daytime, or do they freely intermix with members of other roosts?
Average of at least 10 clutches desirable. What is the interval between the laying of each egg? Chief causes? Growth rates of nestlings can be studied by daubing then with different dyes and weighing them daily at a fixed tine, What is the mortality among adults? What are the House Sparrow's companions, Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Albumand enemies? What specific advantages does the bird derive in your region by living in association with man?
These are only a few of the innumerable points which members could study, wherever they are, A cooperative investigation of this sort can furnish information of very great value and interest. This does not, of course, mean thart observers should shut their eyes to everything else J Moreover, while the House Sparro 1 has been suggested for convenience, as a bird likely lo be founa wherever members live in India, often no doubt even sharing their flat or bungalow, it may be that in some remote 'uncivilized 1 plo.
There is every chance that the Sparrow will arrive there before long, but in the meanwhile it is not recommended that members should sit with folded hands awaiting its advent.
They should select and start off on the commonest and most convenient-to-study bird of their region. It may be possible to find other persons similarly placed elsewhere, to start a parallel cooperative study of their own. It is a big lake with a small island in the middle. This island which is about one furlong in length is the breeding ground of about Painted Storks, The island appeared to remain undisturbed by men and beasts throughout their breeding season.
I, along with Mr, Gibson, went to this island in a small canvas boat for different purposes. The place was full of babool trees and all of these irrespective of their size were full of nests of different siscs. Many nests could be reached standing on -one ground, host of the nests were with young storks ranging from a week old chick to a near-grown-up who could not fly.
To my dismay I discovered the skeletons of a pair of storks under the tree - may be of the oarents of these unhatched eggs. I, The near-grown-ups were disturbed at my approach near their nests and on two occasions I observed them disgorging their meal of fish containing barbs and snakeheadsand climbed to a nest higher than their oim. However, they were never so scared as to try to fly or trample young ones on their way up.
Parent storks came and settled at safe distances from their nests. It was quite It Cant Make Any Difference To Me - Dave Mason - Its Like You Never Left / Dave Mason fun to watch them looking at me suspiciously through the corner of their eyes.
Nests of cormorants and little egrets were also seen among the stork nests. Young ones of these birds wore also observed. I was intrigued to see a pair of ' hit ebr east ed Munias under one of the nests. I saw later another nest of munj in the same circumstances. Another interesting fact I noticed was, that crows, kites, and buz- zards which flew past nests with young chicks in it, never stoopec to pick up young ones. Normally, they would never miss a chance like that. On the other side of the lake about pelicans and flamingos could be seen.
They flew in a big formation an hearing the firing of guns at ducks and geese. Unfortunately, out of the five nests observed, three were destroyed immediately after the eggs were laid, Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album I only Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album the other two just a couple of days before AC/DC - Who Made Who / 74 Jailbreak Delhi for a month.
There had been other breaks in my observations as well, and, therefore, all that I am going to attempt here is to provide a composite picture 01 the general pattern of pairing and nesting activities of this species, as it emerges from my notes on observations in the Lodi Gardens, Obviously paired, since they kept to- gether for the whole period of observation - lj hours.
They kept themselves occupied with their normal feeding sallies to the ground but remained in company throughout, 7,3. One of the birds, presumably the male, was singing loudly but most pleasant -ly, including in its song a number of other bird-calls. Its compan- ion was altogether silent during this performance. The male bird', however, seemed greatly excited and kept turning towards its compan- ion in jerky movements as it poured out its heart in ecstatic song.
The birds kept following each other from branch to branch in no particular order and eventually took to wing Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album and were lost to view. Total period of observation about 20 minutes, 10,3. V Single birds seen on the higher branches of trees mostly at the top singing loudly and delightfully with other bird-calls woven into the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album.
Could this be an invitation? Both birds made two sorties each within a period of about 15 minutes to the same vine. The bird would perch on the stem, neatly prize up a thin strip from as far up as possible and thereafter opening up about 6 inches to 3 inches take to wing pulling out a strip from IS in.
The Tree Pie happened to be just above me and I heard distinct sounds of packing as the birds attacked on the first run. However, this did not seem to worry the Tree Pie much, and he only took to wing, with 4Lome show of dignity, as the Shrikes came in for the second attack. First completed nest observed in a horizontal fork of one of the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album branches of an apricot tree about 7 ft. Nest typical of the species made of t soft grasses, cobwebs, etc. It was discovered by chance as birds were observed to enter thick overhanging foliage, so contrary to their normal habits.
The bird left the tree soon after, and I spotted the nest immediately I walked under the tree — it was untended at the time. About fifteen minutes later, I observed a bird sitting in the nest but it left soon after. Though the nest was well hidden from outside it could be easily spotted as soon as you went under the canopy, the tree itself being in the midst of open and well-frequented lawns.
The nest was found destroyed a few days later. During this period of observation all the feed was picked up from within a well-defined area whose boundaries seemed to be determined by Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album trees. The following sketch will give an idea of the actual area. I am not using the term 'territory 1as the periods of obser- vation would hardly justify a categorical assumption in this regard, I now reproduce my notes in full. Male first seen near nest and then fetching food for mate 2 or 3 times.
Once, when female left nest for about 5 minutes male at once appeared near the nest but seemed uncertain and flew off in same direction as female. After a short time both birds returned to nest together, and whilst the female moved in over the eggs, he remained nearby for a while and left.
Lets Take It To The People - Funkadelic - Tales Of Kidd Funkadelic this time aboutI am certain the eggs had not hatched as there was no activity in -the nest, and male bird only brought feed for his mate, I visited the nest again that afternoon and the next morn- ing and give below a chronological account of the behaviour of the parent birds as observed, No Salvation In This World - Deaths Release - Deaths Release seen sitting in nest presumably female.
Note: Nest about 4 inches deep and 4 inches across made of grassy strands, plastered externally with cobwebs and lined with piece of cloth. Bird's rump and tail overhang nest, bird seen Home - Collective Soul - Niagara Falls, NY 11/16/05 stand up every few minutes but crouch down again as soon as she heard sounds of approaching feet on the road 3 ft.
He was at the nest for a few seconds Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album female. Male remained at edge of nest for about j minute and left. After this female kept standing with spread wings to protect young from direct sun. It seemed young had recently been hatched. No feed -ing of young observed, : Male with food; transferred to female who fed young for first time.
V lJ:Female returned to nest but sat on edge. Fed young and female sat in nest, : Female left nest. II, p. This is clearly shown in the plate, 3 The plate mentioned at 1 above shows T the two dark br out- lines' extending the full length Rock-A-Hula Baby - Werner Müller Conducting The London Festival Orchestra And Chorus - Werner Muller the back down as far as upper tail coverts.
It describes the background colour of the main portions ol" the underparts of the typical form, in winter plum- age as 'creamy -white r. Discrimination between the European and Asiatic races in the field must be extremely difficult, if not impossible.
I can find no reference whatever to the race himalayana in the literature I possess. Lantana shrub about Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album feet from the ground -was located on 29th March. It contained two young ones with well-developed eye furrows indicating that they were about to see the world soon. They were just moving in the nest and were grown enough to lift their head up.
The underside was yellow in Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album and the back dusky grey, more or less similar to adult female. On the next day they opened their eyes. Then they were seen. They had black "beaks les3 curved than the adult's. They were aMs to spread, their wings slightly. Both par- ents fed the young "but the female r. After feeding it just pulled one of the young out by its weak.
The voting one first fell down on the ground. The female immediately went to the rescue. The young gradually got up and stood on its tranbling legs. The young started following the mother with short flights. The bulk of the nest was mads of grasses wA dried Lantanaleaves. Small pieces of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album bark and a little tow were also round.
In the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album integrated India, of Lt. Baker's time, 'South- ern India" meant practically the entire peninsular portion. There -fore, the "book covers species in Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album pages. There are only Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album coloured plates oovsrlag 44 species. Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album plates were sup- plied by the Bombay Ha t oral History Society. The paucity of colour plates, probably forces some birdwatchers to observe more carefully and make notes of details instead of hurriedly turning over the pages of their field book and Laying 'Ha.
Col, Baker, who has ap- parently done uuite a bit of b. They were able to spread taeir wings slightly. Both par- ents fed the young "but the female male more trips with food than the male. On 3,4,62 about 4. After Tending it just pulled one of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album young. The female immediately went to the rcscLio, The young gradually got up and stood on its trasblins; legs.
The mother flew up to a near-by hush and started calling. On 5,4. The hulk of the nest was made of grasses axA dried Lantana leaves. Small pieces of wood hark and a little tow were also round. Baker, Indian Army Betd, and D. In the better Integrated. India, of Lt. There are only 22 coloured plates aoysring 44 species. In fact, most descriptions are ezcerpts from the FaUNa Qj? Baker from his friends. When it comes to the jucier game birds, Col, Baker, who has ap- parently done uuite a bit of birawa toning with a shot gun, gives lengthier accounts L The Groat Indian Bustard receives 3t Paget:, and the Grey ' Jung lef owl 4 pages.
Books available are not in perfect condition. The type of paper, so much favoured "by Governments, has not, fortunately, "been so satisfactory to silver fish. The "book Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album be obtained by sending a money order for fell. Publications Depot, Mount Boad, Lauras 2.
Lavkumar's note on the Great Indian Bustard on p 4. One could agree with his view, that indiscriminate shootii. Personally I feel convinced, that it is the increasing spread of cultivation which pushes the bird into closer contact with man and exposes it to his hunger for meat.
Advancing culti vation, moreover, brings greater insecurity to its eggs and yo. But for culti -vation, the pressure on its 'lebensraum' and direct persecution by man and his evil confederates would be far less serious. As regards the suggestion of breeding bustards in captivity in order to boost the declining natural regeneration, I saw it re- ported somewhere recently I cannot recall the source at the.
This pair, however, was not of wild caught birds, but hatched from eggs in an incubator and hand reared. Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album this method — or even very young wild caught birds — might prove success- ful in the case of our own 'tugdar' also, provided a sufficient- ly experienced and devoted human foster-father could -be found.
So now Mr. Xahiri of Alipore Zoo, how about it? My impression isthe call is actually shriller and more piercing! Whenever any birds are described, such as in the note on Cuckoos in Bihar, I suggest that it would be of great advantage for those unfamiliar with the species if the writer gave a reference wherever possible, to some easily accessible illustration, e.
Soman's note. Owing to the Short descriptions Mizery - Absolute Light orders, families, His Eye On The Sparrow - Mahalia Jackson - I Believe genera are lnciuaeu but more recent taxonomists have simplified matters and remuitu some of these descriptions redundant.
The type of paper, so much favoured lay Governments, has not, fortunately, "been so satisfactory to silver fish. The "book may "be obtained by sending a money order for fell. Publications Depot, Mount Boad, liauras 2. January : Reference Mr. Lavkumar's no tie on the Great Indian Bustard on p 4. Personally I feel convinced that it is the increasing 3pread of cultivation which pushes the bird into closer contact with man and exposes it to his hunger for meat. Thus spread of cultivation and the destructive forces that fol- low in its wake — human as well as non-human -- are primarily responsible for squeezing the bustard to its doom.
But xor culxi -vation, the pressure on its 'lebensraum' and direct persecution by man and his evil confederates would be far less serious. This pair, however, wa3 not of wild caught birds, buthatched from eggs in an incubator and hand reared. Lahiri of Alipore zoo, how about it? My impression is that the call is actually shriller and more piercing! Perhaps this i;: what the writer meant?
Although the British Museum will be coordinating all recoveries the East African Natural History Society should be most interest -ed to hear of any locally. Anyone who feels able to do this should also send 'details of the ring number, date and locality to the Ringing Committee, East African Natural History Society, Coryndon Museum, Nairobi. The ring itself should always be return -cd to the British Museum. East African Natural History Society very much hopes that readers will be able to cooperate in this matter.
Peppe Newsletter 2 M writes that the possession of the 1 lodge' of the Spotted Ov;let, Athene bramawas 'at other times taken by the Common Myna Acridot hares tnstis '. In Jaipur City, three owlets were living in a hole in a wall facing our courtyard. It was also a daily feature to witness three, some- times four, Common Mynas sitting just near the hole, on a projected stone.
No sooner the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album popped its head out the myna attacked it furiously on the face. The owlets were so much attacked by the mynas that they were forced to leave their 'den' and shifted to a Ficus tree, quite near by.
One of the pairs of the myna at once acquired the abandoned hole. It was later observed that the other pair of Acridotheres followed the owlets to their new abode on the Ficus tree and succeeded in getting it vacated. Competition between these two species of birds observed at Basti, U. Lakshmi I. It was also a daily feature to witness three, some- times four, Common Mynas sitting just near the hole on a projected stone.
P, and in Jaipur, Rajasthan, is interesting and warrants fur- ther observations. Mrs, Lakshmi I. This colour was visible even from a long distance. And Greater Bombay and Salsette Island arc now totally closed to shooting. Salim AH, F. Bandra, Bombay 50 K. Lav ku mar, Raj ku mar College, Rajkot Dr. Naik, M. University, Baroda Mrs. Jamal Ara, 4 European Bachelors' Qrs. Doranda, Hinoo P. Avari, Bengal Natural Hist. Soc, Darjeeling Dr.
Neelakantan, Meena Nivas, Amlwttupalayam. Birds in Ladakh in Winter. F, ; Notes and Comments. Agreed, that pigeon's nests and droppings do not add to zhe beauty of a structure, a pertinent question is, who is respon- sible for creating conditions Djamballà - Fausto Papetti - 12a Raccolta cause a population explosion amongst them?
The answer is MAN. By creating artificial jungles of brick, concrete and steel he has driven away the natural checks, particularly birds of prey, that prevent pigeons or starlings from becoming a nuisance, and then he turns round and complains about it.
So typical of the logic of civilized Homo sapiens. And the remedy? To embark on an orgy of killing. No one has heard of pigeons and starlings becoming a menace either in great open spaces or in the jungles. Forests were cut down, swamps drained, large stretches of the Prairie set on fire. The result? The biggest dust bowl in the world, ghost cities, dried up streams and rivers, fertile acres turned to barren eroded wastes.
The U. Ranganathan March. The main burden of Mr. Tinsley's attack is that birds create unsightly spots in cities, are carriers of different Virus dis -eases, and in certain instances, are positively damaging and harmful; specially those birds that have become commensals of Man in one "way or another. Any change in conditions Medley: - The Big Ben Banjo Band With The Mike Sammes Singers* - Sing-A-Long Party Hits has effects, which in due course affect the entire animal kingdom, as well as the vegetation.
The beginnings may be humble, but so delicate is the balance of Nature' that decreases or increases of any species react;, on all others, favourably or unfavourably. Martin Duncan cites the very in- teresting example of an owl, a field mouse, a bumble-bee, a flower head of red clover and a farmer. Owls prey on mice and all kind- red rodents, who in turn feed on the honey stored in the hives of the bumble-bee and the corn ricks.
The fertilisation of the clover and production of seed depends on the number of bumble- bees present, because they alone can transfer the pollen from one flower to another. Therefore, if the owls are reduced in number, the rodents multiply, and by swallowing all the honey kill off the humble-bees offspring. The bees are decimated and the output of clover seeds goes down. When the honey runs out the rodents turn their attention to the farmer's corn ricks. But oxvls prevent Mr, Tinsley from sleeping soundly at night and therefore, must be exterminated J Not that attempts have not been made to exterminate birds consi- dered to be enemies.
In 1 99 Scotch farmers shot hundreds of Rooks and destroyed thousands of their eggs. An injurious grub became so prolific that since then Rooks have been left severely alone. More recently, China launched an all out attack upon sparrows, which most civilized men regard as a nuisance and a grain thief.
The sparrows were almost wiped out, but the subsequent year China laced arte of the biggest famines in history, and has not recover- ed fully from it, even now. The Chinese forgot that in a single year a pair of sparrows destroy something likeinsects. If sparrows are allowed to be kept in check by natural means, such as birds of prey, they never become a menace. But the fact is that birds of prey have been persecuted since the days of Adam, in the interests of game preservation.
So far pigeons have not been exterminated from any area; but it is certain that such a step will result in something equally disastrous. The major vectors of virus infections are insects, particularly of the bug family. Birds alone keep them in check. On che other hand diseases spread by birds are almost negligible, al any rate there are no records of any epidemics of psittacosis, encephali- tis or histoplasmosis, caused by birds. And why blame the birds alone?
The only known carrier of Infective Hepatitis is Man him- self, and this can break out in epidemic form. The same is true of venereal diseases, Man is the' only vector, and these diseases are more prevalent now than ever before. Human innovations always lead to troubles with birds, on account of their specialized habits, and the grouping of starlings on airfields is a case in point.
In the incident cited, along with the plane -load of men, several hundred innocent and helpless birds were killed as well. This is a nice commentary on our civi- lization and humanistic behaviour that we think nothing of this mass murder.
The obvious remedy is to change the location of the airfield, because birds do not congregate everywhere. Such places are known in advance and should Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album avoided by aircraft. There is no practical way of removing them; attempts at destruc- tion are useless as others will always come in to take the place of those destroyed.
One can only hope that in time birds will learn to avoid aircraft, just as they do telegraph wires, automo- biles, and other modern engines of destruction.
The greatest consideration in favour of birds, however, is that these disadvantages are microscopic compared with the advantages. The people of France once in the 19th century tried to live without birds, and then came to the conclusion Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album 'birds can live without man, but man cannot survive without birds'. The story can be repeated so many times. The Australians found the fishing on the River Murray deteriorating, ascribed this to the Cormorants, and promptly destroyed cormorants in larfee num- bers.
The fishing got worse, and then it was found that along with some fish, the cormorants destroyed large numbers of crabs, eels, and other enemies of fish spawn.
Their protective value was far greater than their destructive. Let us for a moment try to picture a birdless world. It would be a desolate wilderness, without a leaf on any tree, a Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album any- where, and in due course without a single plant growing. Agricul -ture would become impossible and human life intolerable. Hordes of catorpillars would immobilise our trains by committing Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album g suicide beneath locomotive wheels.
Birds provide the best check upon the multiplication of insects, as also upon rodents, small mammals and obnoxious weeds. Indeed, one of the best friends of Man in wild Nature are birds. The trouble arises by considering species in isolation. No one species can be considered apart from the fauna of which it forms a part. There is a finely adjusted balance in Nature, in which every single species has a vital role to play. Even a seemingly injurious species cannot be eliminated without disturb -ing this delicate balance and producing results disastrous to Mankind, The vulture-like ladies who lobby for birds, arc doing nothing more than giving Mr.
Tins ley an elementary lesson in self preservation, because Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album life, as a whole is undoubtedly beneficial to human interests in the highest degree, Mrs. Unfortunately work prevented me doing any intensive observation but the following notes may be of interest.
I reached Leh on December It was a bright sunny morning with a sprinkling of snow on the ground. The altitude of the saucer- shaped valley at this point runs between 11, and 11, feet. The ground is covered with fine beige dust.
The few poplars and willows were stark and bare, Forth & Fine - Bridezilla / Tren Brothers - Forth & Fine / Sometimes the temperature was around freezing, dropping at night to minus ten centigrade. They were very bold and only moved away when they became conscious that undue interest was being taken in them. An occasional solitary Tibetan Raven Corvus c prax hung around.
By March he was back in Vienna. Augustin was soon after given a royal grant to pursue his aims. He immediately established a "Krieges- Raketen-Anstalt," or "War Rocket Establishment" at the military works of Weiner- Neustadt, slightly more than 32 kilometers south of Vienna, and recruited some military 2 pyrotechnists to help him. Augustin' s rockets differed significantly enough from the designs of Congreve and Schumacher, so that they eventually became known as the "Augustin System.
The unit was mustered into the Austrian Army on a test basis, the first of an ever multiplying family of batteries. Augustin, although not its field commander, remained in charge of the Kriegs-Raketen-Anstalt at Weiner-Neustadt.
Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album saw the battery perform for the first time in battle in This action, the siege of Huningue, on the left bank of the Rhine in Alsace, France, was one of the last actions of the Napoleonic wars.
The following year the Kaiser expressed his confidence in the weapons and personally encouraged their development. Augustin 's rocketeers were put on a permanent — rather than an experimental — standing inand were renamed the Feuerwerks-Corps. Staff headquarters for the corps continued at Weiner-Neustadt, remaining there through- out the history of the Austrian rocket establishment. Augustin was promoted to lieutenant-colonel inretaining his position as the commandant.
He held this post until I, and, throughout the remainder of his long career, was always closely associated with the establishment. Tne Fireworks Corps brought in new men and later expanded into two sections. The first was a field or service company, and the second a higher paid "maintenance company" of artificers who actually made the rockets.
In Augustin ordered a further expansion. A second field battery was added, soon followed by even more. These works The Curse - The Mekons - The Curse Of The Mekons a mealing house to mix the gunpowder composition, a bag or packaging room for preparing the incendiary mixtures, and two more mixing houses operated by a water-driven mill for the final preparation of the propellant.
The Kriegs-Raketen-Anstalt grew to such This interesting designation was probably an outgrowth of the office of the "Feuerwerkmeister," or "Firework Master" of the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album Austrian Army from the late 18th century who was responsible for maintaining a laboratory for the production of all pyro- technics, including light balls, torches, signal rockets and skyrockets for victory celebrations.
By Austrian Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album authorities believed they had reached a point of near perfection in rocketry. Like the Danes, they considered their rockets far superior in design to those of Congreve. Also, like the Danes, the Austrians were convinced that their foremost rocket pioneer had brought them the highest state of the art of rocketry.
Various Austrian and German journals of announced that Augustin had successfully fired his "perfected war rockets" before the royal court assembled at Weiner-Neustadt. The following year it was similarly reported Augustin had introduced some signal types capable of being seen at "enormous distances. Some of these territories were amongst the most mountainous and difficult to secure in Europe.
It is thus small wonder that both the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album monarchs and the military heirarchy quickly realized the value of rockets for offensive fighting in such terrain. Classed as artillery and approaching the firepower of certain guns, war rockets could easily be transported to regions inaccessible to ordinary field pieces. Though the Austrians later built numerous rocket carriages called wursts because they were oblong and resembled wursts or sausagesrockets could just as easily be carried by horse or human.
Besides Vincenz Augustin' s great pioneering efforts, the rugged Austrian- Italian alps, the mountainous Dalmation coast, and the steep hills of Naples must have also served collectively as strong factors for the adoption and emphasis of war rockets in Austria. As insurrections grew within the empire, the Austrians fielded more and more rocket troops.
In turn, the success of these troops grew in proportion to the superiority they gave Austria in mountain combat, and added to their longevity. The Italian wars for unification — the RisorgLmento — and the fight for Independence Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album Austro-Hungary ' s other provinces also made the Austrian war rocket establishment one of the most active. The rising at Naples in was a small Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album of what was to follow. Austrian rockets caused the Italians to fall back to disarray, according' to de Montgery, "but it isn't certain whether the rockets had created fear [solely] out of their numbers. An Austrian frigate was reportedly armed with them at the Trieste station in This was probably the Royal Imperial frigate Medeaupon which Augustin's son, Ferdinand, served in This vessel bombarded the Moroccan city of Mequine, or Meknes, with incendiary rockets, In a punitive expedition against Riff pirates.
Rockets were also tried in the cavalry, with special rocket cavalry munitions carriages adopted by that branch. By far Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album greatest employment was in the Artillery. With further uprisings in Italy, more Rakentenbatterien were raised and permanently stationed in that country.
By the batteries were posted primarily in Lombardy-Venetia Figure 2. In Austrian rocket teams successfully helped put down a minor Serbian revolt in Montenegro. In a detachment — "picturesque-looking wariors" one historian called them — accompanied a small Austrian fleet assisting the British in bombarding the city of Beirut, Syria now the capitol of Lebanon. On September 8th, according to Weygand," The houses burned under the action of Congreve [type] rockets and in a short time were reduced to cinders.
In he was commissioned a major-general, and a field-marshall- lieutenant in ; eventually, inhe was appointed the General Director of Artillery of the Royal Imperial Army. With each advance in rank and honor, Augustin was able to build up his Kriegs-Raketen-Anstalt to such an extent that, byit had become the largest and most sophisticated in the western world. By direct negotiation or by example, several other European nations adopted the "Augustin System. Austrian rocket practice in Mantua, Italy, Prom the Heeresges- chichtliches Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The AlbumVienna. In the Swiss turned down the efforts of one of their own countrymen and adopted the Austrian system outright. Contractual arrangements were also made with the Kingdom of Bavaria, Wurttemburg, and one or two other German states. Not even permission from an Archduke would do. The men at the laboratory also had to swear to reveal nothing. Nevertheless, in an English officer familiar with Congreve rockets managed to elude the Austrian guard and enter the gates when they were opened for the Emperor.
He subsequently witnessed firing trials and expressed considerable amazement at the accuracy and performance of the rockets, and q the scope of the works. In the original Fireworks Corps received its first large augmentation. Other companies were added or subtracted according to the military- political situation within the Enpire. Ultimately, inthe entire organiza- tion was converted into the "K. An even larger "Raketeur Regiment" was formed in It consisted of 18 rocket batteries which, in time of war, could be further expanded to 20, though the relative size of each battery was somewhat decreased.
Augustin's establishment had thus Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album from approximately men into approximately in As early as the total in officers and men of the rocket establishment already amounted to troops.
Establishments in other nations varied considerably in size, but on the average usually consisted of only one Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album Rocket Battery or Corps of men. These Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album organizational changes in the Austrian rocket establishment undoubtedly occurred largely in response to the bloody Italian revolution of It was a time of the greatest need for and strain upon Austrian arms, particularly war rockets.
At the outbreak of hostilities there were two Raketenbatterien stationed in Italy, both in Venice-Lombardyand each armed with six "Raketengeschutz" or "Rocket Guns" actually rocket stands.
As events unfolded, nine Raketenbatterien were eventually dispatched to Italy, besides a temporary or provisional battery. The customary "wursts" and other munitions carriages accompanied these troops. Battery No. At the bombard- ment of Udine, batteries 3, 4, 5, and the provisional one, were reported to have made "very good effect" with their rockets.
Some of these batteries similarly performed well at the attack of Vencenza, where it was said there were fires in many places, "most of them caused by rockets. Reisner, the overall effect of the rockets was outstanding, particularly in mountain engagements. They were reliable, highly accurate at short range, and could be brought to mountain spots inaccessible to other weapons where only foot soldiers could go. The Italian Revolution, in turn, precipitated a popular insurrection in Hungary in Austrian authorities responded by deploying their Raketenbatterien.
They appear to be watching some of the Austrian war rockets used at this engagement. One thousand rockets were taken in the bombardment by the Austrians. These troops likewise fought well, especially at Petervasar and Szegedin Szeged in the South of Hungary, and also at Temesvar 12 or Timisoaranow in west Rumania.
By the huge Raketeur-Regiment establishment, with Augustin at its head, appeared well justified. In another war between Italy and Austria flared up, although Augustin did not live to see his troops in action again.
He died on March 6,a few months before his requested retirement would have taken effect. In i Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album position was assumed by MaJ or-General Friedrich August Ritter von Antiphons - Gala - Gregorian Dance, a former captain-lieutenant in the old Fireworks Corps, long involved with its logistics.
While Augustin founded the Austrian rocket establishment and watched its rise, he was spared its decline and eventual abolishment. Some raketeurs, nevertheless, were able to ambush some encampments and wound many French soldiers on their march towards the city. A similar outcome followed at the Battle of Solferino on June 24th. The rockets behaved well on the mountains at Solferino, but failed to dislodge the enemy. The Frenchman, Susane, perhaps in a less than impartial tone, said that the Austrian 11 rockets were insignificant and of no real help to the Austrians.
With these events. But there were still 12 Batterien, and there was also the timely introduction of a new and promising rocket which B-Art - Streetwise bolster the Austrian Army's confidence in the weapon.
The English civil engineer William Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album approached the Austrians in I with his supposedly more accurate, all metal, stickless or spin-stabilized rockets. After several trials were held presided over by Schmidtthe Austrians purchased the secret of these projectiles and also his hydraulic presses for the sum of two thousand pounds. The Austrians thoroughly altered the configuration of these rockets and according to an Austrian writer, "retained Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album Hale's principle. With this change came a new designation for the Regiment and a further reduction in actual number of Raketenbatterien.
Considerably diluted in strength from its former days, the Austrian rocket establishment could only withstand one more defeat before being abolished altogether. That reversal came in in the Austro-Prussian War Nine Raketenbatterien two at the start took to the field but were useless against the powerful Prussian artillery, especially their new "Zundnadelgewehr" or breech-loading "Needle guns.
Only in the Italian up- rising ofat the Italian naval bombardment of the island of IAssa in the Dalmation archipelago, did Austrian Raketeurs enjoy any noticeable success. Even so, while the ten 2. Austrian rockets served more successfully against the Italians Garibaldian insurgents at the Fort of Peschiera, in Figure 4 The demise of the Raketeur-und Gebirgs-Artillerie-Regiment had already comnenced inwhen its troops began to be transferred to other units.
Several 32 Fig. Austrian rockets at the siege of Peschiera, Italy,against Garibaldian insurgents. XVI, Sept. This also occurred in when two Raketenbatterien were virtually resurrected from the ashes, and sent to put down some rebels in Krivosije, Dalmatia Hungary.
After this action, the once numerous and proud Rakettenbatterien were disbanded. With You - Various - Richard Searlings Music From The Soul Russian Konstantinoff — who greatly admired Austrian rocketry and was one of the few persons permitted in the works of Weiner-Neustadt he went there twice --observed that though small, the rockets were very accurate.
This was achieved by careful fabrication, and by firing at very close ranges, usually at about meters as compared to up to meters for French and English Congreve models. The French and English Congreve rockets would deviate greatly in azimuth. Konstantinoff also remarked that Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album were 33 "completely different from the Austrian ones in both their appearance and performance.
They were designated according to exterior warhead diameter, and also classified into applications of field or light rockets, and siege or heavy rockets.
The former were 2. Austrian rockets, a stick rocket with grenades, Augustin system; b light ball rocket head with parachute, for rotation rocket; c cartridge or shrapnel ball head, for stick rocket; d first model of Hale Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album rocket presented to the Austrians]; e Austrian rotation rocket, with 2. Incendiary heads were long and filled with an incendiary mixture. Flare ballssuch as those tested by Augustin inwere for illuminating the terrain and were usually ejected and suspended by parachute when the rocket reached its highest altitude. They attained ceilings of up to meters, and illuminated a circular area of about meters in circumference. Austrian Hale rockets, called "Halle Raketen" or "Rotations-raketen," generally retained these calibers although larger, experimental rockets are known Figure 6.
The usual sizes were the 1. Ranges of stick and rotation rockets were also comparable, with mean ranges of meters, Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album ranges of meters, and maximum ranges with correspondingly very wide dispersions of to meters. While most artilerists considered the rockets of this era very accurate there were perhaps the more discriminating critics who believed on the contrary, that their precision left much to be desired.
The truth was that innaccuracy was inherent in all rockets of the 19th century. Standards in all nations were relatively low because of the crude state of the art, especially in propellant technology. Not even the introduction of the Hale stickless rocket saw a noticeable increase in the level of performance for these essentially low-impulse, unguided projectiles. Later rotation rockets did gain somewhat from a higher impulse and hydraulic-pressure rammed propel- lant.
Nonetheless, Austrian stick rockets were impressive in comparative trials with other field pieces of the day. In the late s such a trial was held on a Hello! I Love You - Video-Stalin* - Love Terrorist (VHS) course at Linz in Upper Austria. The 5. The trial results were: Of bombs discharged, 34 hit the target: 30?
Rockets by comparison, had barely improved, and were soon eclipsed altogether. Austrian Hale "Halle" rocket, i, of 5. From the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna. This relatively static level of technology in the last century is, most significantly of all, the underlying factor in the rise and eventual fall of the 19th century rocket.
The introduction of the Hale all-metal stickless rocket and the hydraulic press represented major improvements, but they were not enough for the 19th century rocket to vie with other ordnance. The essential ingredient lacking, as will shortly be evident, was a new higher specific impulse propellant base.
Hale's improvements were further ameliorated by the Austrians and were nonetheless necessary steps. For ease in transportation and to prevent warping, it came in two separate pieces of equal length which were clamped and hammered to the rocket casing when ready to use. The Hale rocket dispensed with it altogether and made for easier transporation and handling and the carriage of more rounds.
Stick rockets were also less sturdy and were made from a 2 centimeter sheet formed into a cylinder and soldered together. Rotation models, on the other hand, were of Iron plate tested at atmospheres and Where Da Bathroom? (Alizie Remix) - Wad$quad* - Motor City Funkilation. The cast iron warheads of the rotation rockets were cylindro-ogivallike British Hale rockets, and were either part of the rocket casing itself as in the first Austrian rotation rockets or were separate pieces screwed to the casing by a matching thread.
Warheads of stick rockets were usually affixed to the casing with canvas cloth, sheet metal strips and string. Ignition methods improved through the yearsand varied from copper percussion fuses to rifle-type percussion locks mounted on the launchers.
Ignition of the warheads in stick rockets was accomplished by combustion of the propellant communicating directly to the base of the warhead by a fuse or a wood cylinder with a powder hole drilled through it. In rotation rockets there were either hollowed out channels, "iron- fire tubes," or impact fuses set in the noses of rockets.
The propellant was always the same, viz. In the stick rockets the propellant was manually or mechanically pressed into the case on a spindle cavity at an undetermined and probably uneven pressure "under utmost compression". The propellant for rotation rockets was hydraulically 19 charged at 67, kilograms pressure on the total surface with the cavity then bored out. Guncotton, developed by the German chemist, Christian F.
Schobein inremained too potent for use as a rocket propellant which required a more stable, slower, and propulsive character.
Modified guncotton was, however, later applied to other ordnance pieces which had also benefitted from progress in metallurgy as well as from rifling and breech- loading in the s.
The technological gap between the rocket and other ordnance thus grew ever wider. The Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel invented a more stable improve- ment over guncotton called double-base powder, or ballistite, inbut it arrived too late to be applied by the diligent Austrians in the weapons of their Raketenbatterien.
Significantly, improved double-base powder later powered nearly all the solid fuel rockets used during World War II. The 19th century Austrian rocket launchers or "rocket guns," as they were called, were not true guns but tripod mounted launching racks or tubes Figure 7.
There were many designs, probably the most advanced being an all-metal open ribbed tube for holding and launching rotation rockets. The usual tripod launcher had wooden tripod legs, squared or tapered at the ends, sometimes with points to steady them on the ground. Most of them also came with quadrants for adjusting the appropriate firing elevation by means of tightening screws.
The Austrians favored low firing elevations, usually set at 25 degrees. Some also had sighting devices and also percussion locks attached. In one model of a rotation rocket, a 4. This particular stand had an 38 overall weight of Most had a weight of about 9 kilograms or less. A Raketenbatterie usually consisted of 6 "wursts" and 3 carts, with additional carts in reserve. In the s the typical munition supply of a battery was about rounds, depending upon caliber and rocket class. Wursts also carried Forsaken - Francis M.
Gri - Dreamers Stories and fuses, and transported the troops of the batteries who in the s consisted of one gunner, three corporals, and 36 men. In turn, they were serviced by the maintenance companies. In short, 20 Raketenbatterien were self-contained units. The Austrian rocket establishment in its equipment and foundations, its growth and decline, was not unique. It differed in being the largest, best organized, and most sophisticated of many rocket establishments in Europe, and thus was a perfect example of rocket technology of Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album age. Staatsarchivs ViennaNovemberp. Zamarski: Vienna,Vol. I, pp. Nemetz, loc. IV, pp. II, p. Blanc: Metz, p. II Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, p. Theodor Jakobsson "Kongl. Spectateur Militaire ParisT. Konstantinof fLecturesloc.
Wrede, loc. Allgemeine Illustrierte Zeitung StuttgartVol. XVI, September,p. Dolleczek, loc. XVT, September, Anon, Militar-Zeitung Leipzig Bank Holiday - Albert W.
Ketelbey - In A Persian Market, September 6, De Montgery, M. Tome 2. Eines Heft. Hall, Captain Basil. Jakobsson, Lt. Theodor, "Kongl. Zweiter Heft. Konstantinoff, Maj. Lettow-Vorbeck, Oscar von. Reisner, H. Achtes Heft. Sokol'skii, V. Susane, M. Blanc, Sechstes Heft. Zamarski,Vo. Weygand, General [Maxime]. Winter, Frank H. Wrede, Alphons von, Geschichte der K. Wehrmacht Vienna: L. These important events also saw rockets adopted and used in the Hungarian Revolution and the War of Independence.
The Paris Revolution in February was followed by revolutionary risings in a number of European countrieschiefly in the countries of the Hapsburg. Under the pressure of the March Revolution in Hungary, the Imperial government conceded to some of the Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album national demands. Though still part of the Empire, Hungary was invested with some independence, and the Austrian Emporer — as King of Hungary — appointed the first independent Hungarian ministry, the Batthyany government in which Lajos Kossuth, the Minister of Finance, played a leading role.
After making the involuntary concessions to Hungary, the Imperial Court made every effort to repeal them. This effort became increasingly pronounced with the decline of the European revolutions.
During the summer of an armed conflict was expected, and the Batthyany government initiated the organization of an independent Hungarian army. The Imperial forces launched an invasion in September, but the new Honved army repulsed the attack.
In this critical situation the Batthyany government abdicated, and the Hungarian Parliament invested ruling power in the National Defence Committee under the presidency of Kossuth. The new revolutionary government was confronted with the enormous task of organizing the armed defense of the country. One of the most important aims of the October Revolution in Vienna was to thwart plans Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album another invasion of Hungary. But the revolution was suppressed, and Hungary was again invaded. The Hungarian army retreated step by step before the enemy, and in January the Imperial troops took possession of Budapest. Hungarian Astronautical Society, Budapest, Hunary. Side by side with the Hungarian honveds fought foreign volunteers, mainly Poles, Italians, Austrians, and Germans. Besides the illustrious Hungarian military leaders, several commanders of foreign origin played a significant role, in- cluding the Polish generals Jozef Bern and Henryk Dembiriski, and the English general Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album Guyon. In the spring campaign of Marchthe Hungarian army started a succes- sful counter-attack and Isubeleeene - Various - Oi! The Album the greater Sonnenwelt Sechs - Schiller - Sonne (CD, Album, Album) of the country.
The Parliament declared the independence of Hunary and dethroned the Hapsburg dynasty. But after these victories the fortune of war took an unfavorable turn. Upon concluding a military expe- dition in Italy, a considerable number of Austrian forces were transferred to the Hungarian front.
The numerical superiority suppressed the Human Remains Found Amongst Swine Excrement - Total Hipster Crusher - Total Hipster Crusher of Independence, and general Arthur Gorgery, the commander-in-chief of the Hungarian revolutionary army capitulated at Vilagos 3 in Isubeleeene - Various - Oi!
The Album The resoluteness of the Hungarian army, the activities of a number of revolutionary organizers and military leaders, and the efforts of the newly established national arms factory which supplied the army for a while with various up-to-date weaponsamong them war rocketsmade this possible. At this time the armies of the great European powers had introduced Congreve's war rockets and formed rocket corps, either as an independent branch of service or attached to their artillery.
In the Austrian army a modified type of war rocket was employed. These rockets were designed in according to the conceptions of 5 6 Vincenz Augustin, an Austrian major born in Hungary. For services rendered, Augustin later was made a baron and promoted to general. Infour years before the Hungarian War of Independence, William Hale in Great Britain patented his invention, 7 the spin-stabilized stickless rocket. See Frank H.
They were acquainted only with Augustin-type rockets, and the organization of the Hungarian rocket units was similar to the Austrians. For this reason it is important to briefly survey the state of Austrian rocketry. Rocket troops in the Austrian army were organized in the same way as the field-artillery. The rocket batteries consisted of six so-called rocket guns.
The rocket gun was not a true gun; this name was used to designate a complex of one or two launchers, the ammunition supply about rounds and means of transport one or two Q carriages.
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