See Yea, and So. Yes is used, like yeato enforce, by repetition or addition, something which precedes; as, you have done all this -- yesyou have done more. This word is now seldom used except in Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic few Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic as, yester day, yester night, etc.
The proudest royal houses are but of yesterdaywhen compared with the line of supreme pontiffs. On the day last past; on the day preceding to-day; as, the affair took place yesterday. The evening of yesterday; the evening last past. The morning of yesterday. See Yesterday.
Any one of several species of large marine gastropods belonging to the genus Yetusor Cymba ; a boat shell. Yet, adv. In addition; further; besides; over and above; still. Home - Collective Soul - Niagara Falls, NY 11/16/05 furnishes us with yet one more reason why our savior, lays such a particular stress acts of mercy.
Up to the present time; thus far; hitherto; until now; -- and with the negative, not yetnot up Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic the present time; not as soon as now; as, Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic it time to go? Not yet. See As yetunder As, conj. Before some future time; before the end; eventually; in time. Men may not too rashly believe the confessions of witches, nor yet the evidence against them. Yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
Yew, n. An evergreen tree Taxus baccata of Europe, allied to the pines, but having a peculiar berrylike fruit instead of a cone. It frequently grows in British churchyards. The wood of the yew. It is light red in color, compact, fine-grained, and very elastic. It is preferred to all other kinds of wood for bows and I Surrender All - Disco Saints - Cosmic Cowboy, Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic best for these purposes coming from Spain.
The American yew Taxus baccatavar. Canadensis is a low and straggling or prostrate bush, never forming an erect trunk. The California yew Taxus brevifolia is a good-sized tree, and its wood is used for bows, spear handles, paddles, and other similar implements.
Another yew is found Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic Florida, and there are species in Japan and the Himalayas.
Yewa. Of or pertaining to yew trees; made of the wood of a yew tree; as, a yew whipstock. Yex, n. Yex, v. Of or pertaining to Yezdegerdthe last Sassanian monarch of Persia, who was overthrown by the Mohammedans; as, the Yezdegerdian era, which began on the 16th of June, a. The era is still used by the Parsees. See in the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction. Yielded; obs. To give in return for labor expended; to produce, as payment or interest on what is expended or invested; to pay; as, money at interest yields six or seven per cent.
When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength. To furnish; to afford; to render; to give forth. To give up, as something that is claimed or demanded; to make over to one who has a claim or right; to resign; to surrender; to relinquish; as a city, an opinion, etc. Tend me to-night two hours, I ask no more, And the gods yield you for 't. To yield the breaththe ghostor the lifeto die; to expire; -- often followed by up. Yield, v. To give up the contest; to submit; to surrender; to succumb.
To give way; to cease opposition; to be no longer a hindrance or an obstacle; as, men readily yield to the current of opinion, or to customs; the door yielded. To give place, as inferior in rank or excellence; as, they will yield to us in nothing.
Nay tell me first, in what more happy fields The thistle springs, to which the lily yields? Amount yielded; product; -- applied especially to products resulting from growth or cultivation.
Disposed to yield or comply. The act of producing; yield; as, the yieldance of the earth. Yield"ing, a. Inclined to give way, or comply; flexible; compliant; accommodating; as, a yielding temper. Yielding and paying Lawthe initial words of that clause in leases in which the rent to be paid by the lessee is mentioned and reserved.
In many cases a man may be attentive or yielding in a high degree without any sacrifice of his dignity; but he who is obsequious seeks to gain favor by excessive and mean compliances for some Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic end.
A suffix used as a characteristic termination of chemical radicals; as in eth ylcarbon ylhydrox yletc. After this - yl was generally used as in benzoylin the sense of stuffcharacteristic groundfundamental material.
Like; alike. The agouara. See In, and Middle. A South American tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens ; -- called also perdiz grandeand rufous tinamou. Yodeled, Yodled; p. Yodeling, Yodling. A song sung by yodeling, as by the Swiss mountaineers. Yoke ykn. A bar or frame of wood by which two oxen are joined at the heads or Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic for working together.
A yearling bullock to thy name shall smoke, Untamed, unconscious of the galling yoke. The modern yoke for oxen is usually a piece of timber hollowed, or made curving, near each end, and laid on the necks of the oxen, being secured in place by two bows, one inclosing each neck, and fastened through the timber. In some countries the yoke consists of a flat piece of wood fastened to the foreheads of the oxen by thongs about the horns. A frame or piece resembling a yoke, as in use or shape.
Specifically: a A frame of wood fitted to a person's shoulders for carrying pails, etc. To its ends lines are attached which lead forward so that the boat can Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic steered from amidships. A bent crosspiece connecting two other parts. A tie securing two timbers together, not used for part of a regular truss, but serving a temporary purpose, as to provide against unusual strain. Boweth your neck under that blissful yoke. Which that men clepeth spousal or wedlock.
The quantity of land plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen. A portion of the working day; as, to work two yokesthat is, to work both portions of the day, or morning and afternoon. Neck yokePig yoke. See under Neck, and Pig. To put a yoke on; to join in or with a yoke; as, to yoke oxen, or pair of oxen.
To couple; to join with another. Yoke, v. To be joined or associated; to be intimately connected; to consort closely; to mate. The two languages [English and French] became yokefellows in a still more intimate manner. Those who have most distinguished themselves by railing at the sex, very often choose one of the most worthless for a companion and yokefellow. A small farm; -- so called as requiring but one yoke of oxen to till it.
Having two toes in front and two behind, as the trogons and woodpeckers. Yolk ylk or yk;n. See Yellow. An oily secretion which naturally covers the wool of sheep. See under Unbilical.
Yon yna. Praise You - Various - Cruise Control (The Very Best Drive Time Anthems), Yond, Yonder.
But, first and chiefest, with thee bring Him Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic yon soars on golden wing. A local name in parts of the Mississippi Valley for the American lotus Nelumbo lutea. Yond, adv. See Yon, a. See Yond, adv. Yon"der, a. Being at a distance within view, or conceived of as within view; that or those there; yon. The symbol under which Sakti, or the personification of the female power in nature, is worshiped. Yore yradv. See Year. Which though he hath polluted oft and yoreYet I to them for judgment just do fly.
Of yoreof old time; long ago; as, in times or days of yore. Yorkshire grita kind of stone used for polishing marble, and copperplates for engravers. The one of the three printed uses of England which was followed in the north. It was based on the Sarum use. See Use, n. Yote ytv. See Found to cast. My fowls, which well enough, I, as before, found feeding at their trough Their yoted wheat. Youpron. Your r or Yours rz ; dat. See the Note under Ye. In vain you tell your parting lover You wish fair winds may waft him over.
Though you is properly a plural, it is in Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic ordinary discourse used also in addressing a single person, yet properly always with a plural verb. You and your are sometimes used indefinitely, like wetheyone Kaleidoscope - Kitaro - Ki, to express persons not specified.
You is often used reflexively for yourself of yourselves. Young ynga. Younger y"gr ; superl. Youngest -gst. Junior, Aërobic By Computer - Venus - AërobicJuvenile, Younker, Youth.
Not long born; still in the first part of life; not yet arrived at adolescence, maturity, or age; not old; juvenile; -- said of animals; as, a young child; a young man; a young fawn. Being in the first part, pr period, of growth; as, a Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic plant; a young tree. Young, n. The offspring of animals, either a single animal or offspring collectively.
One who is younger; an inferior in age; a junior. Young"ly, a. Young"ly, Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic. In a young manner; in the period of youth; early in life. A young person; a youngling; a lad. Youngth"ly, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, youth; youthful. See Young, a. Your rpron. See You. The possessive takes the form yours when the noun to which it refers is not expressed, but implied; as, this book is yours.
The religious movement which you yourselfas well as I, so faithfully followed from first to last. Youth thn. Youths ths; or collectively Youth. See Young. The quality or state of being young; youthfulness; juvenility. The part of life that succeeds to childhood; the period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole early part of life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy, to manhood.
He wondered that your lordship Would suffer him to spend his youth at home. Those who pass their youth in vice are justly condemned to spend their age in folly. Not yet mature or aged; young.
Also used figuratively. Of or pertaining to the early part of life; suitable to early life; as, youthful days; youthful sports. Puerile is always used in a bad sense, or at least in the sense of what is suitable to a boy only; as, puerile objections, puerile amusements, etc.
Juvenile is sometimes taken in a bad sense, as when speaking of youth in contrast with manhood; as, juvenile tricks; a juvenile performance. Youthful is commonly employed in a good sense; as, youthful aspirations; or at least by way of Ste Ingham Feat. Gemma Macleod - Touch Me as, youthful indiscretions. See Youth, and -hood. Youth"ly, a. The cheetah. A ewe. Fine bobbin lace made at Ypres in Belgium, usually exactly like Valenciennes lace.
Ye, the. Pertaining to, or derived from, ytterbium; containing ytterbium. Ytterbyin Sweden. See Erbium. A rare element of the boron group, sometimes associated with yttrium or other related elements, as in euxenite and gadolinite. Symbol Yb; provisional atomic weight Ytterbium is associated with other rare elements, and probably has not been prepared in a pure state.
See Yttrium. The oxide, Y 2 O Mengetuk Pintu Mu - Awie - Awieor earth, of yttrium.
Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, yttrium. Bearing or containing yttrium or the allied elements; as, gadolinite is one of the yttriferous minerals. A rare metallic element of the boron-aluminium group, found Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic gadolinite and other rare minerals, and extracted as a dark gray powder. Symbol Y. Atomic weight, Associated with yttrium are certain rare elements, as erbium, ytterbium, samarium, etc.
They are studied by means of their spark or phosphorescent spectra. Yttrium is now regarded as probably not a simple element, but as a mixture of several substances. A mineral of a violet-blue color, inclining to gray and white. It is a hydrous fluoride of cerium, yttrium, and calcium. A tantalate of uranium, yttrium, and calcium, of a brown or black color.
A genus of American liliaceous, sometimes arborescent, plants having long, pointed, and often rigid, leaves at the top of a more or less woody stem, and bearing a large panicle of showy white blossoms. The species with more rigid leaves as Yucca aloifoliaY.
Treculianaand Y. See Itch. It is entirely arboreal in its habits, and has very long arms. The females are yellowish white, with a dark spot on the breast and another on the crown. Called also wooyenTurn Me Loose - Various - Dominionated The Third wooyen ape.
See Yoke. Any one of the four ages, Kritaor SatyaTretaDwaparaand Kaliinto which the Hindoos divide the duration or existence of the world. A species of Magnolia M. See the Note under Magnolia.
And at each pause they kiss; was never seen such rule In any place but here, at bonfire, or at Yule. Yule blockor Yule loga large log of wood formerly put on the hearth of Christmas eve, as the foundation of the fire.
It was brought in with much ceremony. A tribe of Indians native of Arizona and the adjacent parts of Mexico and California. They are agricultural, and cultivate corn, wheat, barley, melons, etc. Yunx yks Untitled - Joe Budden - Mood Muzik The Box Set, n.
A genus of birds comprising the wrynecks. See Wit to know, and Y. She answered me, " I-wisseall their sport in the park is but a shadow to that pleasure that I find in Plato. The common form iwis was often written with the prefix apart from the rest of the word and capitalized, as, I wisI wisseetc.
The prefix was mistaken for the pronoun, I and wiswissefor a form of the verb wit to know. See Wis, and cf. Wit, to know. Z z; in England commonly, and in America sometimeszd; formerly, alsoz"zrd Z, the twenty-sixth and last letter of the Deceived - Extreme Noise Terror - live & demos alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is taken from the Latin letter Z, which came from the Greek alphabet, this having it from a Semitic source.
The ultimate origin is probably Egyptian. Etymologically, it is most closely related to s Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobicyand j ; as in gla ssgla z e; E. It was long considered a false, but is the true note of the chord of the flat seventh. Smith Dict. It consists of crude cobalt oxide, or of an impure cobalt arseniate.
It is used in porcelain painting, and in enameling pottery, to produce a blue color, and is often confounded with smalt, from which, however, it is distinct, as it contains no potash. The name is often loosely applied to mixtures of zaffer proper with silica, or oxides of iron, manganese, etc.
A horse of a dark color, neither gray nor white, and having no spots. Of or pertaining to a tribe Zalambdodonta of Insectivora in which the molar teeth have but one V-shaped ridge. One of the Zalambdodonta. The tenrec, solenodon, and golden moles are examples. An immense leguminous tree Pithecolobium Saman of Venezuela. Its branches form a hemispherical mass, often one hundred and eighty feet across. The sweet pulpy pods are used commonly for feeding cattle.
Also called rain tree. See Plin. A genus of cycadaceous plants, having the appearance of low palms, but with exogenous wood. See Coontie, and Illust. The jurisdiction of a zamindar; the land possessed by a zamindar. A West African buffalo Bubalus brachyceros having short horns depressed at the base, and large ears fringed internally with three rows of long hairs.
It is destitute of a dewlap. Called also short-horned buffaloand bush cow. A sort of bagpipe formerly in use among Italian peasants. It is now almost obsolete. A European pike perch Stizostedion lucioperca allied to the wall-eye; -- called also sandarisandersannatschilland zant. See Sand, and Mole the animal. The sand mole. Zan"te cur"rant? A kind of seedless grape or raisin; -- so called from Zanteone of the Ionian Islands. See Fustet, and the Note Dreams Of Milk And Honey - Pat Travers - P.T.
Power Trio Fustic. A native or inhabitant of Zante, one of the Ionian Islands. IoannesGr. Ykhnnprop. Then write that I may follow, and so be Thy echo, thy debtor, thy foil, thy zany. State or character of a zany; buffoonery. An extinct genus of cyathophylloid corals common in the Paleozoic formations. It is cup-shaped with numerous septa, and with a deep pit in one side of the cup. Of or pertaining to Zarathustra, or Zoroaster; Zoroastrian.
Zarata of Spain. An improvised stockade; especially, one made of thorn bushes, etc. See Arsenic. Native sulphide of arsenic, including sandarach, or realgar, and orpiment. A European bream Abramis vimba. A species of macaque Macacus pileatus native of India and Ceylon. It has a crown of long erect hair, and tuft of radiating hairs on the back of the head.
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Analysis, Analytical. Biology, Biological. Calico Printing. Trade Name. Nevertheless there are pitfalls, such as the numerous idiomatic phrases, the irregular verb forms and the words which, though posing as old friends, do not mean just what they ought to!
The following notes may be of assistance in the use of the vocabulary. A large number of phrases has been included. Labels such as Anat. Without such labels some meanings would hardly be intelligible. For label abbreviations see the table on pages ix and x.
General Words. Words Common to French and English. This is especially true of names of chemical compounds ending in -ine, which is translated into English as -ine if the substance is basic, otherwise as -in [cf. Derived Words. A listing of ail the corresponding meanings of the noua brassage is avoided by using for the latter word the forai "stirring, etc.
The following irregularities should be noted:. Doubling of the final consonant; as, gros, grosse. Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic Forms. The regular formation of the plural is by addition of s to. Departures from this rule are:.
Nouns ending in -s, -x and -z and masculine adjectives ending in -s and -x in the singular are unchanged in the plural. Nouns Used as Adjectives. French differs from English in its adjectival use of nouns. Another and highly ingenious application of serum has Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic brought forward by Pfeiffer, Gruber, Widal, and others.
This is the so-called sero-diagnosis of disease, and has been employed already with success in the identification of typhoid fever as such. The method sounds simple in the extreme, and consists in taking a few drops of blood from a patient supposed to be suffering from typhoid fever and mixing them with a recent cultivation in broth of genuine typhoid bacilli. If the blood is derived from a typhoid-infected person, then the bacilli should exhibit a curious and characteristic appearance when examined under the microscope.
Instead of moving about as individuals in various parts of the microscopic field, they should be seen gathering or clumping together in numerous small heaps, their movements the while becoming paralysed. The State Board of Health of Massachusetts has recently taken up the official sero-diagnosis of typhoid fever, and issues in response to applications a simple outfit with instructions how to collect specimens of blood and a form which they request shall be returned filled in with all the details concerning the case under observation.
Only a few drops of blood are required for the examination, and these before being despatched to the State Laboratory are collected on slips of paper and allowed to dry. If the addition of this suspected blood in the proportion of one to twenty to a young and vigorous culture of typhoid bacilli succeeds in paralysing their movements, producing the characteristic clumping together or agglutination of the bacilli, then the reaction is considered positive and the case one of typhoid fever.
That, however, some risk attends the placing of too implicit a reliance on this method of diagnosis alone is evident from the fact that a negative reaction, or in other words, absence of all agglutinising phenomena, is sometimes associated with blood throughout what is beyond all question a well-defined case of typhoid fever, whilst in the first week of this disease the test is frequently negative in character.
Rouget, who has made a very careful inquiry into the value to be attached to the sero-diagnosis of typhoid fever, states that he has found in a large number of examinations of blood derived from undoubted typhoid patients the agglutination phenomena fail altogether; it is, therefore, not surprising that the sero-diagnosis of this disease is still the subject of much discussion and investigation.
An interesting example of how particular serums may be employed for the detection of particular poisons has been furnished by Dr. In some districts of India the natives have an ugly custom of wreaking their vengeance on their enemies by poisoning their cattle, and to effect this both expeditiously and secretly they employ subtle poisons which they know can only be detected with great difficulty.
Serpent venom is a favourite substance, whilst abrine, a highly toxic vegetable poison, is another. The method adopted for the application of this abrine is highly original, and consists Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic taking small bits Train Of Thought (12 Mix) - Various - FFRR Classics Volume 7 wood shaped like miniature clubs, Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic diminutive in size that they can be concealed in the hand.
In the head of the club small holes are bored, and tiny pointed rodlets of a hard greyish substance are fitted into them. Armed Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic these crude instruments, the natives scratch the cattle in several places, and, although but little external sign of injury is to be seen, the rod-points penetrate the skin and are broken off, and the poison is left to work its lethal way through the animals' system.
Hankin forwarded some of these broken-off rod-points to Dr. Calmette for the identification Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic their composition, and he diagnosed the material employed as abrine in the following original manner. He first introduced some of this rod material into animals, and found that their symptoms were suggestive of abrine poisoning.
To confirm his suspicions, however, he took some more of this rod material, and, before inoculating it into animals, he mixed it with serum derived from animals which had Because I Do - X - Under The Big Black Sun artificially rendered immune to abrine poison.
Instead of the animals into which this mixture of serum and "rod material" had been introduced dying like the previous ones, they remained alive. Had the "rod material" consisted of some poison other than abrine, the abrine serum would not, according to Dr. Calmette, have negatived its action, and it has thus been indicated how protective serums may be successfully employed for the detection of poisons.
Foremost, however, among the beneficent reforms which have followed in the wake of bacteriology must be placed the antiseptic treatment of Four Tops - Four Tops Ao Vivo, or Listerism, as it is now universally designated in recognition of its renowned champion, the former President of the Royal Society.
Roux, "que les complications des plaies sont dues aux germes microbiens venus du dehors et il imagine les pansements antiseptiques. Avec l'antiseptie commencent les temps nouveaux de la chirurgie. But if the Victorian era has been productive of so many important applications of bacteriology to commerce and medicine, this period has been also fraught with results of the highest moment in the progress of hygiene.
The terms of intimacy, so to speak, which we have been now able to establish with bacteria has enabled us to discover details of their life and habits which before were shrouded in mystery. Their distribution in air has led to renewed endeavours on the part of sanitary authorities to procure efficient ventilation in our hospitals and public institutions; dust has acquired a fresh horror since it has been shown how disease germs may be disseminated by its means; whilst the important part which flies and lice may play in the spread of epidemics has opened up a new field for research, and made us conscious of a fresh source of danger in our daily life.
The general public, however, is hardly yet fully alive to the capacity for mischief possessed and exercised by the common house-fly. True, it is universally execrated and regarded as a tiresome attendant upon the summer months, but it is not usually considered in any more serious light. That however, the comparative indulgence with which this homely insect pest has been treated is decidedly misplaced and fraught with danger to health, the researches of numerous scientists have now conclusively proved.
As long ago as the year Professor Celli showed that the germs of consumption, anthrax, and typhoid Le 6 Septembre - Various - Très Chic!
(French Style. The Effortless Art Of Cool) could pass through the digestive organs of flies and reappear in the excreta of the latter not only alive but in full possession of their disease-producing powers. Sawtschenko made similar experiments with cholera germs.
Healthy flies were placed under glass shades and fed with Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic in which these micro-organisms were growing, and the latter were not only subsequently recovered from the digestive organs of the flies but also from their excreta in a living and virulent condition. During the recent outbreak of bubonic plague in the East the part played by flies in disseminating the virus has been repeatedly emphasised. Yersin was the first who called attention to the presence in large numbers of virulent plague bacilli within the bodies of flies which he collected in the vicinity of plague-stricken persons, and it was found that flies which had fed on plague-infected material and were then isolated lived for several days afterwards, during which time virulent plague bacilli were present in their bodies in immense numbers; thus were these insects converted into winged messengers of evil of the most repulsive type.
I am not aware whether any experiments on the vitality and transmissibility of diphtheria and consumption germs by means of flies have been made; but in view of the overwhelming evidence of the culpability of these insects in spreading plague, it is not unreasonable to presume a responsibility on their behalf in regard to other diseases; indeed, in Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic report issued by the Army Medical Commissioners of the Spanish-American War, it is emphatically stated that flies played an important part in the dissemination of typhoid fever.
There is no question as to the capability of certain micro-organisms to reside for considerable periods of time within the bodies of flies, and during this sojourn to abate no jot of their virulence. Indeed, it has been shown that the bodies of these insects may constitute incubators of a most successful type, for some varieties of bacteria grow luxuriantly and multiply abundantly within them.
In the Kelly Wright - How Deep Is Your Love days of summer, when flies abound, it would be well to banish these insects, as far as lies in our power, not only from our sick-rooms in particular, but from our general surroundings. The catholic taste of flies Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic garbage of all kinds is too well known to require entering into, but the consequences which may follow from their visits to dustbins and centres of disease, and then alighting upon our food or persons, has received too little attention in the Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic.
In regard to the subject of insects as disease disseminators, it may be mentioned that Mr. Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobicwhen studying plague conditions in India, expressed his belief that ants in Bombay also assisted in spreading the scourge, for he found that when he inoculated mice with the excreta of ants, such insects having previously fed on plague-stricken rats, the mice succumbed to plague in a few hours. Fleas have also been conclusively proved to be carriers of plague germs.
There is no doubt that the revelations of hygienic science have aroused the vigilance and zeal of public authorities in various new directions Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic try and cope with the spread of zymotic disease. In no direction, perhaps, is the fruit of this energy so apparent as in the increasing supervision which it has incited over two of the greatest menaces to public health which hang over society— i.
Now that it has been proven beyond doubt Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic the germs of consumption, typhoid fever, and cholera can be and are distributed through the consumption of contaminated milk or water, not to mention other diseases such as diphtheria and scarlet fever, an ever-increasing demand is being made that these all-important articles of diet shall be protected from pollution, and that public authorities shall be made responsible for their distribution in a pure and wholesome condition.
It is, however, undoubtedly in the matter of water that the greatest service has been rendered by bacteriology to sanitary science, and for the important advance in this department we are indebted to the beautifully simple and ingenious methods devised by Robert Koch. Not yet twenty years have passed since the new bacterial examination of water was introduced and systematically employed, and the use which has been made of the opportunities thus opened up of investigating water problems on an entirely new basis is shown by the voluminous dimensions which the literature on this one branch of bacteriology alone has reached.
Considerably upwards of two hundred different water bacteria have been isolated, studied, and their distinctive characters chronicled. The behaviour of typhoid, cholera, and other disease-producing microbes in waters of various kinds has been made the subject of exhaustive experiments; the purification power of time-honoured processes in operation at waterworks and elsewhere has been for the first time accurately estimated.
Water engineers have through these bacteriological researches been provided with a code of conduct drawn up by the light of erudite scientific inquiries, which has now rendered possible the removal of the process of water purification from the rule of empiricism guided by tradition, and to raise it to the level of an intelligent and scientific undertaking.
The above short sketch may serve to convey some idea of the rise and phenomenal development of bacteriology during the past sixty years. To record, even in outline, the individual triumphs of the various branches of this science would require volumes, whilst the astounding mass of work already accumulated by its devotees is but the earnest, the guarantee of yet greater achievements in the future. The progress which has been made in this brief period Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic time must not necessarily be expected to continue at this rapid rate; it may be that generations to come have yet the hardest and the longest tasks Nebo Je Tako Vedro - Dubrovnik Kvintet - Ja Te Ljubim accomplish; for in science, as in other walks of life, it is, as a rule, the easiest problems, which are first disposed of, and the farther we advance the more complicated, the more intricate become the questions to be attacked, the difficulties to be overcome.
The late Queen's reign has bestowed a splendid legacy of bacteriological discoveries upon those who, in the future as in the present, must inevitably Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic in the footsteps of those great and brilliant leaders of bacteriological science belonging to this auspicious era, Ill Be There - Michael Jackson And The Jackson 5 - 18 Greatest Hits - Compact Command Performances Pasteur and Robert Koch.
Few people realise that, with the advent of autumn, the great majority of the swarms of bacteria which have been circulating in the air during the hot summer months take their leave of us and disappear. Practically, however, we are all conscious of this fact, for we know what greater difficulties attend the keeping of food sweet and wholesome in the summer than are met with in the winter; bacteria, not unlike some other armies of occupation, securing a footing rather by their numbers at this Cognoscenti Vs Intelligentsia - Cuban Boys - Cognoscenti Vs Intelligentsia of the year, than by virtue of the superior strategy or, in other words, special attributes of their units.
Bacterial operations are, however, distinctly favoured by the accident of temperature, the warmth of the summer encouraging their vitality and multiplication. When Pasteur first announced his conviction that the Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic phenomena of putrefaction and decay were due to minute living particles present in our surroundings, his sceptical critics sought to ridicule his conclusions by declaring that, were this the case, the air must of necessity be Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic heavily laden with living forms that we should be surrounded by a thick fog—"dense comme du fer.
Since Pasteur's pioneering work was carried out, a vast number of investigations have been made in all parts of the world by scientists of almost every nationality on the subject of the distribution of bacteria in air, and not only on their distribution, but on their functions or the place they occupy in the economy of nature.
With our increased knowledge concerning their distribution has come our ability to differentiate between individuals, and to adequately assess the value and importance of their work from various points of view.
In the bacterial treatment of sewage we have not only one of the latest, but perhaps also one of the most successful examples of that system of division of labour, or specialisation of energy, which forms such a characteristic feature of work of all kinds at the present time. Other familiar instances of the applications of individual and special bacterial labourers to the solution of industrial problems are to be found in the conduct of commercial undertakings of such national magnitude and importance as brewing and agriculture.
But it is not with these beneficent or great industrial classes of bacteria that we are now more immediately concerned, but rather with the malevolent varieties, or the so-called "submerged tenth," for which no labour colony has at present been created to direct their energies into useful and profitable channels. We know that as regards mere numbers the bacteria in air may vary from 0 to millions in a couple of gallons, these extremes being dependent upon the surrounding conditions or relative purity of the atmosphere.
Out at sea, beyond the reach of land breezes, it is no uncommon thing to find none whatever; on mountains and even hills of humble elevation the paucity of bacteria is very marked if there are no abnormal or untoward circumstances contributing to their distribution. In illustration of this the recent investigations of the air on the summit of Mont Blanc by M.
Jean Binot are of especial interest, inasmuch as the altitude at which they were carried out is the highest at which the search after bacteria has so far been pursued. This intrepid investigator Skulls - Various - Graven Images: A Tribute To The Misfits no less than five days Beguine For You - Marco Grasso - Cocktail the observatory, which is situated on the top of the mountain.
As was to be anticipated, frequently no bacteria at all were found, and it was only when such comparatively large volumes of air as one thousand litres about gallons were explored that microbes in numbers varying from four to eleven were discovered. The air of the country is far freer from microbial life than that of cities; whilst open spaces, such as those afforded by the London parks, are paradises of purity compared with the streets with their attendant bacterial slums.
That it is no exaggeration to describe streets from the bacterial point of view as slums is to be gathered from the fact that much less than a thimbleful of that dust which is associated with the blustering days of March and the scorching pavements of summer may contain from nine hundred to one hundred and sixty millions of bacteria.
But investigators have not been content to merely quantitatively examine street dust; in addition to estimating the numerical strength of these bacterial dust-battalions, the individual characteristics of their units have been exhaustively studied, and the capacity for work, beneficent or otherwise, possessed by them has been carefully recorded.
The qualitative discrimination of the bacteria present in dust has resulted in the discovery of, amongst other disease germs, the consumption bacillus, the lock-jaw or tetanus bacillus, bacteria associated with diphtheria, typhoid fever, pulmonary affections, and various septic processes. Such is the appetising menu which dust furnishes for our delectation. There can be no doubt, therefore, that dust forms a very important distributing agent for micro-organisms, dust particles, aided by the wind, being to bacteria what the modern motor-car, with its benzine or electric current, is to the ambitious itinerant of the present day.
Attached to Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobicbacteria get transmitted with the greatest facility from place to place, and hence the significance of their presence in dust. Mention has been made of the fact that the germs of typhoid fever have been discovered in dust, and the belief in the possibility of this disease being spread by dust is gaining ground. An interesting case in point is afforded by an outbreak of typhoid fever which occurred in Athens a few years ago, and in which the starting-point or nucleus was discovered to be a group of labourers who were engaged upon excavating the soil in a street through which a sewer had once been taken.
The epidemic subsequently spread to those districts of the city swept by the prevailing wind, which passed over the place where the soil had been turned up and exposed. Bambas, who brought his observations before the International Congress of Hygiene at Buda-Pesth, was convinced from the inquiries he made that this outbreak of typhoid was due to the disturbance of the soil and the dissemination by means of the wind of typhoid-dust-particles to certain parts of the city.
That this hypothesis is by no means without experimental justification is shown by the properties possessed by the typhoid bacillus in regard to its vitality in soil which have been discovered. Thus numerous investigators have studied Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic important question of the behaviour of this micro-organism in soil, and have found that it can exist over periods extending from three to twelve or more months in the ground.
This property of the typhoid bacillus may possibly explain the appearance over and over again of typhoid fever in particular localities, suggesting that the bacteria had become indigenous in Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic soil. Mewius, of Heligoland, describes an epidemic of typhoid fever in the island, concerning which he made a most searching and elaborate inquiry.
It appears that a case of typhoid occurred and was concealed from the medical authorities, so that no steps for disinfection could be taken in the first instance; and, following the primitive custom which Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic on the island, the dejecta was thrown over and upon the cliffs, this being the usual method of disposing of sewage.
Ample opportunity was thus given for its desiccation and subsequent distribution as dust. That this typhoidal matter did subsequently become pulverised and spread the infection Dr. Mewius has no doubt, the germs having been conveyed to the open rain-water cisterns which constitute the water-supply of the majority of the inhabitants.
His theory is again supported by the coincidence between the prevailing direction of the wind and the quarter where the outbreak occurred.
That diphtheria germs can remain for a long time in a living and, what is more, virulent condition in dust has been clearly demonstrated by Germano, amongst other investigators, this organism being specially endowed with the capacity for resisting the, to other microbes, lethal effect of getting dried up. Bacteria, however, survive this desiccation process much better when they are herded together in large numbers than when they have to face such untoward conditions as isolated individuals.
This has been well illustrated in the case of diphtheria bacilli, and the difference in their powers of endurance under these respective conditions is very striking. Thus when a few only were exposed to a very dry atmosphere on silken threads they disappeared after eight days; but when somewhat larger numbers were taken they contrived to exist for Dance Computer Two - Mastermixers Unity - Dance Computer 2 days, whilst when great multitudes of them were herded together even one hundred and forty days' starvation in these desert-like Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic could not entirely stamp out their vitality.
This dangerous property possessed by the germs of diphtheria should, if possible, increase the vigilance with which the outbreaks of this disease are watched and dealt with. Abel cites an instance in which a wooden toy in Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic sickroom of a child suffering from diphtheria was found six months later to have virulent diphtheria bacilli upon it. This reminds me of a case in which tetanus or lock-jaw ensued from the use of some old cobwebs Aërobic By Computer - Venus - Aërobic stopping the bleeding of a cut.
The wound was a perfectly clean one, and nothing need have resulted from this obedience to a superstitious prejudice had not the cobwebs unfortunately arrested some tetanus germs, and these getting access to the wound set up the typical symptoms of lock-jaw. That this implication of the cobweb was no idle accusation was subsequently proved by portions of the same web, on being inoculated into animals, inducing in the latter well-defined symptoms of tetanus.
That cobwebs readily catch dust is familiar to everyone who has the mortification of seeing them adorn ceilings and corners; that they also arrest bacteria follows as a natural consequence of the presence of dust, and hence these delicate filaments may become veritable bacterial storehouses, more especially as it is usually in the dark and remote corners that they best succeed in eluding the vigilance of the domestic eye, and are thus also out of reach of the lethal action of sunbeams; and hence their unwelcome lodgers may manage to maintain a very comfortable existence over long periods of time.
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